Project page, Italy

Italy before the unification

In 1815, after the Congress of Vienna, Italy was split into several States:

  1. the Kingdom of Sardinia, including Piemonte, Liguria and Sardinia;

  2. the Kingdom of Lombardo-Veneto including Lombardia, Veneto and Friuli;

  3. the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza;

  4. the Duchy of Modena and Reggio;

  5. the Duchy of Lucca;

  6. the Duchy of Massa;

  7. the Grand Duchy of Tuscany;

  8. the Papal State;

  9. the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.

The only State with an Italian Monarch, apart from the Papal one, was the Kingdom of Sardinia.


Italy after the unification


In 1861 Italy was unified under the Monarch of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Only the Papal State, that was annexed in 1870, and part of Northern Italy, Trentino,

Venice and Friuli that were under the Kingdom of Austria, remained outside and became Italian after the First World War. The capital was Turin.

In 1865 Florence became capital of Italy and it remained so till 1870 when Rome was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, becoming its capital.

In 1882 the Foreign Secretary, announcing to the Chamber of not having received the English invitation for a common action in Egypt, declared, between the applause of the deputies, which "not it was a danger that would have been possible that Italy would have allowed itself to seduce... - a colonial adevnture- ...". And, in fact, in Italy there were problems much more urgent of the African conquest to be faced: the eternal southern question and the liberation of the Venice-Julia and Trentinia, just to

give a pair ofsignificant examples. Italy, besides, had no great capitals, and the little money at disposal had to be used to allevate the numerous backwardnesses, in the South as to the North, rural population. But, the year following to the Mancino''s declaration, exactly 1882, the Italian Governament bought from the society of navigation Rubattino the Bay of Assab, which it had previosly bought, after the cut of the Isthmus of Suez, to build a coal storage for his ships. Assab then constituted a little base of departure of our difficult and tiring penetration into Africa.

Italy between the world wars

Fascism in Italy

Having obtained a parliamentary majority in the 1924 election, the following year passed a law increasing the powers of the head of government. It was in 1926, with the abolition of all the other political parties, that the Fascist dictatorship formally began. By such means Mussolini, both on the national and international level, was able to expand without any further formal hindrance. In 1929 following the Concordato with the Catholic Church, he also managed to gain the support or at least not the hostility of the Church itself and through this the Catholic masses, which were equivalent to the majority of Italians. Such consensus increased also because of an undoubted improvement in the country's economic condition and a policy of social reform involving the poorest classes.The continuation of land reclamation, already begun in the previous century even before the unification, increased the amount of land under cultivation with a satisfactory level of basic provisions. Examples of these initiatives can be found in the `grain battle' and the draining of the agro pontino, which produced an entirely new piece of territory. At the same time, industry was being brought up to date and developed, especially after the world economic crisis of 1929. The Istituto Mobiliare Italiano was created in 1931 to provide credit for industry and the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (1933) began the era of public intervention in large-scale industrial reform. In its external policy the Fascist regime especially sought prestige by further colonial expansion, as that into Ethiopia (1935-36) or participation in the Spanish Civil War on the side of Franco's forces. Gradually, Italy's good relations with France, Britain and the Soviet Union (whose revolutionary government Italy was the first country to recognize) deteriorated, while her links with Hitler's Germany increased (Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936). In 1939 the Pact of Steel with Germany, after an initially non-belligerent phase, inevitably dragged Italy, in 1940, into the tragic events of the Second World War (1939-45).Italy's increasingly unsuccessful war, fought on many fronts and against better trained and equipped armies, overwhelmed Mussolini in 1943, when he was censured by his own party. He was replaced as head of government by the Marshall Pietro Badoglio, who immediately signed an armistice with the allied powers (3 September 1943). The formation of a new government by Mussolini in Northern Italy, the Repubblica Sociale Italiana based at Salò with the support of Germany and in opposition to the monarchial government (temporarily based at Brindisi) provoked a civil war. This was only brought to an end by the intervention of the allied armies, the formation of the partisans, the abdication of the king and the end of Mussolini (28 April-2 May 1945).After an interlude with several national coalition governments and the provisional rule of Umberto II of Savoy, Alcide De Gasperi of the Democrazia Cristiana became President of the Council. On 2 June 1946 the results of the institutional referendum brought to an end the monarchy of the House of Savoy (its last king, Umberto II, going into exile) and heralded the republic which was officially proclaimed on 18 June 1946. Enrico De Nicola was elected as the Republic's first President. Under the government led by De Gasperi, the first parliamentary assembly to be freely elected by the people began to work on the new Constitutional Charter that was to come into force on 1 January 1948.

Post-war Italy

Italian Somaliland, also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy from the 1880s until 1936 in the region of modern-day Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Sultanate of Hobyo and the Majeerteen Sultanate, the territory was later acquired by Italy through various treaties.[1] In 1936, the region was integrated into Africa Orientale Italiana as part of the Italian Empire. This would last until 1941, during World War II. Italian Somaliland then came under British administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somalia, under Italian administration. On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somalia united as scheduled with the briefly extant State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.

The late 19th century had a huge impact on developments occurring in the Horn of Africa. The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire.


Comment from Finland
The text is versatile and Italy's history is very interesting. However the text is a bit difficult to read because there is many unfamiliar words and terms.

Comment Germany:
During our visit in Italy we noticed that the fascist influence has faded. Moreover, the former dividing of Italy into small kingdoms
is not remarkable anymore.

Masha, Morena, Giada, Gianluca, Selene, Vittorio, Giuliano, Noemi, Mattia, Valentina, Alessandro.

Information found on Wikipedia and